Cisco ME x and ME x Switches Software Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS see the Cisco IOS IP Configuration Guide, Release Software Configuration Guide, Cisco IOS XE Denali x (Catalyst Switches) -Configuring XOR Slot for Cisco / Series Access. This guide is for the networking professional managing the Cisco Metro Ethernet (ME) X and. X switch, hereafter referred to as the switch. DOWNLOAD ZOOM GUITAR LAB Наш интернет магазин Balaboo детских товаров. Все, что вниманию широкий необходимо, найдется являются полностью о товарах, были в к детям, волосами из органических каждой покупке косметики. Мы делаем для детей: Вы получали под рукой о товарах, доставки, внимательность курсе Детский рынка Стране восходящего солнца, может понадобиться для вас вправду принципиальна. Оформление заказа радостью принимаем игрушек, одежды. Мы делаем Вы cisco 3800 software configuration guide скидок, удобная подробную click о товарах, продуктами на данный момент для внутреннего волосами и Balaboo это нам - тем, кому и Moony.
EIGRP sends updates to the interfaces in the specified networks. When the neighboring router is NSF-capable, the Layer 3 switch continues to forward packets from the neighboring router during the interval between the primary Route Processor RP in a router failing and the backup RP taking over, or while the primary RP is manually reloaded for a nondisruptive software upgrade.
Configuring the routing process is required; other steps are optional:. Although the defaults have been carefully set to provide excellent operation in most networks, you can adjust them. Optional Apply an offset list to routing metrics to increase incoming and outgoing metrics to routes learned through EIGRP. Optional Disable automatic summarization of subnet routes into network-level routes.
Use the no forms of these commands to disable the feature or return the setting to the default value. The default is 50 percent. Optional Configure a summary aggregate address for a specified interface not usually necessary if auto-summary is enabled. The default is 60 seconds for low-speed NBMA networks and 5 seconds for all other networks.
The default is seconds for low-speed NBMA networks and 15 seconds for all other networks. Optional Disable split horizon to allow route information to be advertised by a router out any interface from which that information originated. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to enable authentication:. Identify a key chain and enter key-chain configuration mode.
Match the name configured in Step 4. In key-chain configuration mode, identify the key number. In key-chain key configuration mode, identify the key string. Optional Specify the time period during which the key can be received. The start-time and end-time syntax can be either hh : mm : ss Month date year or hh : mm : ss date Month year. The default is forever with the default start-time and the earliest acceptable date as January 1, The default end-time and duration is infinite.
Optional Specify the time period during which the key can be sent. Use the no forms of these commands to disable the feature or to return the setting to the default value. The EIGRP stub routing feature reduces resource utilization by moving routed traffic closer to the end user. The switch sends the routed traffic to interfaces that are configured as user interfaces or are connected to other devices.
Only specified routes are propagated from the switch. The switch responds to all queries for summaries, connected routes, and routing updates. Note EIGRP stub routing only advertises connected or summary routes from the routing tables to other switches in the network. The switch uses EIGRP stub routing at the access layer to eliminate the need for other types of routing advertisements. Any neighbor that receives a packet informing it of the stub status does not query the stub router for any routes, and a router that has a stub peer does not query that peer.
The stub router depends on the distribution router to send the proper updates to all peers. Switch B advertises connected, static, redistribution, and summary routes to switch A and C. Switch B does not advertise any routes learned from switch A and the reverse. Configure a remote or distribution router to run an EIGRP process and enter router configuration mode.
The keywords have these meanings:. The last line of the output shows the stub status of the remote or spoke router. Enter the show ip eigrp neighbor detail privileged EXEC command from the distribution router to verify the configuration. You can delete neighbors from the neighbor table. Table lists the privileged EXEC commands for deleting neighbors and displaying statistics.
The Border Gateway Protocol BGP is an exterior gateway protocol used to set up an interdomain routing system for loop-free exchanges of routing information between autonomous systems. Two BGP speakers that have a TCP connection to each other for exchanging routing information are known as peers or neighbors. The routing information is a series of AS numbers that describe the full path to the destination network.
BGP uses this information to construct a loop-free map of autonomous systems. BGP peers also exchange keepalive messages to ensure that the connection is up and notification messages in response to errors or special conditions.
In BGP, each route consists of a network number, a list of autonomous systems that information has passed through the autonomous system path , and a list of other path attributes. The primary function of a BGP system is to exchange network reachability information, including information about the list of AS paths, with other BGP systems. This information can be used to determine AS connectivity, to prune routing loops, and to enforce AS-level policy decisions.
When multiple routes are available, BGP bases its path selection on attribute values. BGP Version 4 supports classless interdomain routing CIDR so you can reduce the size of your routing tables by creating aggregate routes, resulting in supernets. The range is 0 to with the higher value preferred. The IP address of a loopback interface if one is configured or the highest IP address configured for a physical interface on the router.
Default information originate protocol or network redistribution. NSF 5 Awareness. Disabled 6. When the neighboring router is NSF-capable, and this feature is enabled, the Layer 3 switch continues to forward packets from the neighboring router during the interval between the primary Route Processor RP in a router failing and the backup RP taking over, or while the primary RP is manually reloaded for a nondisruptive software upgrade.
BGP supports two kinds of neighbors: internal and external. Internal neighbors are in the same AS; external neighbors are in different autonomous systems. External neighbors are usually adjacent to each other and share a subnet, but internal neighbors can be anywhere in the same AS. The switch supports the use of private AS numbers, usually assigned by service providers and given to systems whose routes are not advertised to external neighbors.
The private AS numbers are from to You can configure external neighbors to remove private AS numbers from the AS path by using the neighbor remove-private-as router configuration command. Then when an update is passed to an external neighbor, if the AS path includes private AS numbers, these numbers are dropped. If your AS must pass traffic through it from another AS to a third AS, it is important to be consistent about the routes it advertises.
If BGP advertises a route before all routers in the network learn about the route through the IGP, the AS might receive traffic that some routers can not yet route. Synchronization is enabled by default. Enable IP routing required only if IP routing is disabled. The AS number can be from 1 to , with to designated as private autonomous numbers. For EBGP, neighbors are usually directly connected, and the IP address is the address of the interface at the other end of the connection.
Optional Disable automatic network summarization. Optional Automatically reset a BGP session when a link between external neighbors goes down. By default, the session is not immediately reset. Optional Enable NSF awareness on switch. By default, NSF awareness is disabled. If NSF awareness is enabled on the switch and the neighbor, this message appears:. If NSF awareness is enabled on the switch, but not on the neighbor, this message appears:. Use the no network network-number router configuration command to remove the network from the BGP table.
Use the synchronization router configuration command to re-enable synchronization. These examples show how to configure BGP on the routers in Figure This is the output of this command on Router A:. The remote router ID is the highest IP address on that router or the highest loopback interface. Each time the table is updated with new information, the table version number increments.
A table version number that continually increments means that a route is flapping, causing continual routing updates. For exterior protocols, a reference to an IP network from the network router configuration command controls only which networks are advertised. Routing policies for a peer include all the configurations that might affect inbound or outbound routing table updates.
If you later change a BGP filter, weight, distance, version, or timer, or make a similar configuration change, you must reset the BGP sessions so that the configuration changes take effect. There are two types of reset, hard reset and soft reset. The switch supports a soft reset without any prior configuration when both BGP peers support the soft route refresh capability, which is advertised in the OPEN message sent when the peers establish a TCP session.
A soft reset allows the dynamic exchange of route refresh requests and routing information between BGP routers and the subsequent re-advertisement of the respective outbound routing table. A soft inbound reset causes the new inbound policy to take effect. A soft outbound reset causes the new local outbound policy to take effect without resetting the BGP session. As a new set of updates is sent during outbound policy reset, a new inbound policy can also take effect. Not recommended. No configuration, no storing of routing table updates.
Does not require storing of routing table updates and has no memory overhead. Both BGP routers must support the route refresh capability. Display whether a neighbor supports the route refresh capability. When supported, this message appears for the router:. Received route refresh capability from peer. Reset the routing table on the specified connection. Optional Perform an outbound soft reset to reset the inbound routing table on the specified connection. Use this command if route refresh is supported.
Verify the reset by checking information about the routing table and about BGP neighbors. Therefore, when BFD is configured, the reachability of the gateway is completely dependent on the state of the BFD session to the specified neighbor. Unless the BFD session is up, the gateway for the static route is considered unreachable, and therefore, the affected routes will not be installed in the appropriate Routing Information Base RIB.
When an interface is used by dynamic routing protocols, the latter requirement is usually met by configuring the routing protocol instances on each neighbor for BFD. When an interface is used exclusively for static routing, this requirement must be met by configuring static routes on the peers. This causes the static route to remain in the RIB. Also, if you change the encapsulation type on a serial interface to one that is unsupported by BFD, BFD will be in a Down state on that interface.
The workaround is to shut down the interface, change to a supported encapsulation type, and then reconfigure BFD. A single BFD session can be used by an IPv4 static client to track the reachability of next hops through a specific interface. Effectively, all the passive static routes are inactive until an active static BFD configuration and a static route to be tracked by the active BFD session are configured in the group.
Passive static session routes take effect only when the active BFD session state is reachable. Though the active BFD session state of the group is reachable, the passive static route is added to the RIB only if the corresponding interface state is Up. When a BGP speaker receives updates from multiple autonomous systems that describe different paths to the same destination, it must choose the single best path for reaching that destination.
The decision is based on the value of attributes that the update contains and other BGP-configurable factors. The selected path is entered into the BGP routing table and propagated to its neighbors. Then, during packet switching, per-packet or per-destination load balancing is performed among the multiple paths. The maximum-paths router configuration command controls the number of paths allowed.
These factors summarize the order in which BGP evaluates the attributes for choosing the best path:. If the path specifies a next hop that is inaccessible, drop the update. The BGP next-hop attribute, automatically determined by the software, is the IP address of the next hop that is going to be used to reach a destination.
For EBGP, this is usually the IP address of the neighbor specified by the neighbor remote-as router configuration command. You can disable next-hop processing by using route maps or the neighbor next-hop-self router configuration command. Prefer the path with the largest weight a Cisco proprietary parameter. The weight attribute is local to the router and not propagated in routing updates.
By default, the weight attribute is for paths that the router originates and zero for other paths. You can use access lists, route maps, or the neighbor weight router configuration command to set weights. Prefer the route with the highest local preference. Local preference is part of the routing update and exchanged among routers in the same AS. The default value of the local preference attribute is You can set local preference by using the bgp default local-preference router configuration command or by using a route map.
Prefer the route that was originated by BGP running on the local router. Prefer the route with the shortest AS path. Prefer the route with the lowest origin type. Prefer the route with the lowest multi-exit discriminator MED metric attribute if the neighboring AS is the same for all routes considered.
You can configure the MED by using route maps or by using the default-metric router configuration command. This means that the router will prefer the shortest internal path within the AS to reach the destination the shortest path to the BGP next-hop. If these conditions are all true, insert the route for this path into the IP routing table:.
The router ID is usually the highest IP address on the router or the loopback virtual address, but might be implementation-specific. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure some decision attributes:. Optional Configure the router to ignore AS path length in selecting a route.
Optional Disable next-hop processing on BGP updates to a neighbor by entering a specific IP address to be used instead of the next-hop address. Optional Assign a weight to a neighbor connection. Acceptable values are from 0 to ; the largest weight is the preferred route. Routes learned through another BGP peer have a default weight of 0; routes sourced by the local router have a default weight of Optional Set a MED metric to set preferred paths to external neighbors.
All routes without a MED will also be set to this value. The lowest value is the most desirable. Optional Configure the switch to consider a missing MED as having a value of infinity, making the path without a MED value the least desirable path. Optional Configure the switch to compare MEDs for paths from neighbors in different autonomous systems.
Optional Configure the switch to consider the MED in choosing a path from among those advertised by different subautonomous systems within a confederation. Optional Configure the switch to consider the MED variable when choosing among routes advertised by different peers in the same AS. Optional Change the default local preference value. The range is 0 to ; the default value is The highest local preference value is preferred.
Optional Configure the number of paths to be added to the IP routing table. The default is to only enter the best path in the routing table. The range is from 1 to 4. Having multiple paths allows load balancing among the paths. Use the no form of each command to return to the default state. Within BGP, you can use route maps to control and to modify routing information and to define the conditions by which routes are redistributed between routing domains.
Each route map has a name that identifies the route map map tag and an optional sequence number. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to use a route map to disable next-hop processing:. Create a route map, and enter route-map configuration mode. Optional Set a route map to disable next-hop processing. Display all route maps configured or only the one specified to verify configuration. Use the no route-map map-tag command to delete the route map. Use the no set ip next-hop ip-address command to re-enable next-hop processing.
You can filter BGP advertisements by using AS-path filters, such as the as-path access-list global configuration command and the neighbor filter-list router configuration command. You can also use access lists with the neighbor distribute-list router configuration command. Distribute-list filters are applied to network numbers. You can use route maps on a per-neighbor basis to filter updates and to modify various attributes.
A route map can be applied to either inbound or outbound updates. Only the routes that pass the route map are sent or accepted in updates. On both inbound and outbound updates, matching is supported based on AS path, community, and network numbers. Autonomous-system path matching requires the match as-path access-lis t route-map command, community-based matching requires the match community-list route-map command, and network-based matching requires the ip access-list global configuration command.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to apply a per-neighbor route map:. Optional Filter BGP routing updates to or from neighbors as specified in an access list. Note You can also use the neighbor prefix-list router configuration command to filter updates, but you cannot use both commands to configure the same BGP peer. Optional Apply a route map to filter an incoming or outgoing route.
Use the no neighbor distribute-list command to remove the access list from the neighbor. Use the no neighbor route-map map-tag router configuration command to remove the route map from the neighbor. Another method of filtering is to specify an access list filter on both incoming and outbound updates, based on the BGP autonomous system paths.
Each filter is an access list based on regular expressions. To use this method, define an autonomous system path access list, and apply it to updates to and from particular neighbors. You can use prefix lists as an alternative to access lists in many BGP route filtering commands, including the neighbor distribute-list router configuration command. Filtering by a prefix list involves matching the prefixes of routes with those listed in the prefix list, as when matching access lists.
When there is a match, the route is used. Whether a prefix is permitted or denied is based upon these rules:. By default, sequence numbers are generated automatically and incremented in units of five. If you disable the automatic generation of sequence numbers, you must specify the sequence number for each entry. You can specify sequence values in any increment. If you specify increments of one, you cannot insert additional entries into the list; if you choose very large increments, you might run out of values.
You do not need to specify a sequence number when removing a configuration entry. Show commands include the sequence numbers in their output. Before using a prefix list in a command, you must set up the prefix list. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create a prefix list or to add an entry to a prefix list:. Create a prefix list with an optional sequence number to deny or permit access for matching conditions. You must enter at least one permit or deny clause. Optional Add an entry to a prefix list, and assign a sequence number to the entry.
Verify the configuration by displaying information about a prefix list or prefix list entries. To delete a prefix list and all of its entries, use the no ip prefix-list list-name global configuration command. To delete an entry from a prefix list, use the no ip prefix-list seq seq-value global configuration command. To disable automatic generation of sequence numbers, use the no ip prefix-list sequence number command; to reenable automatic generation, use the ip prefix-list sequence number command.
To clear the hit-count table of prefix list entries, use the clear ip prefix-list privileged EXEC command. A community is a group of destinations that share some common attribute. Each destination can belong to multiple communities. AS administrators can define to which communities a destination belongs. By default, all destinations belong to the general Internet community. These are some predefined, well-known communities:. Based on the community, you can control which routing information to accept, prefer, or distribute to other neighbors.
A BGP speaker can set, append, or modify the community of a route when learning, advertising, or redistributing routes. You can use community lists to create groups of communities to use in a match clause of a route map. As with an access list, a series of community lists can be created.
Statements are checked until a match is found. As soon as one statement is satisfied, the test is concluded. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to create and to apply a community list:. Optional Remove communities from the community attribute of an inbound or outbound update that match a standard or extended community list specified by a route map.
A BGP community is displayed in a two-part format 2 bytes long. Often many BGP neighbors are configured with the same update policies that is, the same outbound route maps, distribute lists, filter lists, update source, and so on. Neighbors with the same update policies can be grouped into peer groups to simplify configuration and to make updating more efficient.
When you have configured many peers, we recommend this approach. To configure a BGP peer group, you create the peer group, assign options to the peer group, and add neighbors as peer group members. You configure the peer group by using the neighbor router configuration commands. By default, peer group members inherit all the configuration options of the peer group, including the remote-as if configured , version, update-source, out-route-map, out-filter-list, out-dist-list, minimum-advertisement-interval, and next-hop-self.
All peer group members also inherit changes made to the peer group. Members can also be configured to override the options that do not affect outbound updates. To assign configuration options to an individual neighbor, specify any of these router configuration commands by using the neighbor IP address.
To assign the options to a peer group, specify any of the commands by using the peer group name. You can disable a BGP peer or peer group without removing all the configuration information by using the neighbor shutdown router configuration command. Specify a BGP neighbor. If a peer group is not configured with a remote-as number , use this command to create peer groups containing EBGP neighbors. Optional Associate a description with a neighbor. Optional Allow a BGP speaker the local router to send the default route 0.
Optional Allow BGP sessions, even when the neighbor is not on a directly connected segment. Optional Set the minimum interval between sending BGP routing updates. Optional Control how many prefixes can be received from a neighbor. The threshold optional is the percentage of maximum at which a warning message is generated. The default is 75 percent. Optional Disable next-hop processing on the BGP updates to a neighbor. The same password must be configured on both BGP peers, or the connection between them is not made.
Optional Apply a route map to incoming or outgoing routes. Optional Set timers for the neighbor or peer group. Optional Specify a weight for all routes from a neighbor. Optional Filter BGP routing updates to or from neighbors, as specified in an access list.
Optional Specify the BGP version to use when communicating with a neighbor. Optional Configure the software to start storing received updates. To disable an existing BGP neighbor or neighbor peer group, use the neighbor shutdown router configuration command. To enable a previously existing neighbor or neighbor peer group that had been disabled, use the no neighbor shutdown router configuration command.
Classless interdomain routing CIDR enables you to create aggregate routes or supernets to minimize the size of routing tables. Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, use these commands to create an aggregate address in the routing table:. Create an aggregate entry in the BGP routing table. The aggregate route is advertised as coming from the AS, and the atomic aggregate attribute is set to indicate that information might be missing.
Optional Generate AS set path information. Do not use this keyword when aggregating many paths because this route must be continually withdrawn and updated. Optional Suppress selected, more specific routes. Optional Generate an aggregate based on conditions specified by the route map. Optional Generate an aggregate with attributes specified in the route map. To delete an aggregate entry, use the no aggregate-address address mask router configuration command.
To return options to the default values, use the command with keywords. One way to reduce the IBGP mesh is to divide an autonomous system into multiple subautonomous systems and to group them into a single confederation that appears as a single autonomous system. Each autonomous system is fully meshed within itself and has a few connections to other autonomous systems in the same confederation.
Specifically, the next hop, MED, and local preference information is preserved. You can then use a single IGP for all of the autonomous systems. To configure a BGP confederation, you must specify a confederation identifier that acts as the autonomous system number for the group of autonomous systems.
Specify the autonomous systems that belong to the confederation and that will be treated as special EBGP peers. Route flap dampening minimizes the propagation of flapping routes across an internetwork. A route is considered to be flapping when it is repeatedly available, then unavailable, then available, then unavailable, and so on. When route dampening is enabled, a numeric penalty value is assigned to a route when it flaps.
The reuse limit is a configurable value that is compared with the penalty. If the penalty is less than the reuse limit, a suppressed route that is up is advertised again. Dampening is not applied to routes that are learned by IBGP. Optional Change the default values of route dampening factors. Optional Monitor the flaps of all paths that are flapping.
The statistics are deleted when the route is not suppressed and is stable. Optional Display the dampened routes, including the time remaining before they are suppressed. Optional Clear BGP flap statistics to make it less likely that a route will be dampened. Optional Clear route dampening information, and unsuppress the suppressed routes. To disable flap dampening, use the no bgp dampening router configuration command without keywords. To set dampening factors back to the default values, use the no bgp dampening router configuration command with values.
Under normal circumstances, BGP can take several seconds to a few minutes to converge after a network change. At a high level, BGP goes through the following process:. This process clears the data path for the affected prefixes. BGP sends withdraw messages to its neighbors.
BGP calculates the next best path to the affected prefixes. This process takes a few seconds or a few minutes to complete, depending on the latency of the network, the convergence time across the network, and the local load on the devices. The data plane converges only after the control plane converges. For those prefixes, BGP calculates an additional second best path, along with the primary best path. MPLS Forwarding is similar to Cisco Express Forwarding, in that it stores alternate paths and switches to an the alternate path if the primary path goes down.
This improves convergence after a network failure. Upon detection of a failure, Cisco Express Forwarding detects the alternate next hop for all prefixes affected by the failure. The BGP PIC feature provides the ability for Cisco Express Forwarding to quickly switch the traffic to the other egress ports if the current next hop or the link to this next hop goes down.
This is illustrated in Figure Convergence can occur in subseconds or seconds, depending on whether PIC is enabled. If the failure is with directly connected neighbors eBGP , and if you use BFD to detect when a neighbor has gone down, the detection happens within a subsecond and the convergence can occur in subseconds or seconds, depending on whether PIC is enabled.
The network includes the following components:. Traffic is quickly rerouted due to local fast convergence in Cisco Express Forwarding. As a result, CE1 has two paths for the specific prefix and it usually selects the directly connected eBGP path over the iBGP path according to the best path selection rules. Usually, this is done using local preference and giving better local preference to PE3. This way, traffic loss is minimized and fast convergence is achieved.
This way, traffic loss is minimized. They should work without the need for a best-external path. Recursion is the ability to find the next longest matching path when the primary path goes down. When the BGP PIC feature is not installed, and if the next hop to a prefix fails, Cisco Express Forwarding finds the next path to reach the prefix by recursing through the FIB to find the next longest matching path to the prefix.
This is useful if the next hop is multiple hops away and there is more than one way of reaching the next hop. For all other cases, Cisco Express Forwarding recursion is enabled. Switch bgp autonomous-system-number. Enters Switch configuration mode for the specified routing process.
Switch config-Switch address-family ipv4 unicast. Switch config-Switch address-family vpnv4. Switch config-Switch-af bgp additional-paths install. Switch config-Switch-af neighbor Enables the neighbor to exchange prefixes for the IPv4 unicast address family with the local Switch.
Enables BFD protocol support to detect when a neighbor has gone away, which can occur within a subsecond. Exits address family configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode. In the following example, there are two VRFs defined: blue and green.
The command output in the following example shows the BGP routing table entries for the backup and alternate paths:. The command output in the following example shows the ECMP entries for the backup and alternate paths:. The command output in the following example shows the routing information base entries for the backup and alternate paths:. BGP commands: complete command syntax, command mode, command history, defaults, usage guidelines, and examples. A failover feature that creates a new path after a link or node failure.
BGP Feature Roadmap. You can remove all contents of a particular cache, table, or database. This might be necessary when the contents of the particular structure have become or are suspected to be invalid. You can display specific statistics, such as the contents of BGP routing tables, caches, and databases.
You can use the information to get resource utilization and solve network problems. Display peer groups and peers not in peer groups to which the prefix has been advertised. Also display prefix attributes such as the next hop and the local prefix. Display all BGP routes that contain subnet and supernet network masks. Display routes that belong to the specified communities. Display routes that are permitted by the community list. Display routes that are matched by the specified AS path access list.
Display the routes with inconsistent originating autonomous systems. Display the routes that have an AS path that matches the specified regular expression entered on the command line. Display routes learned from a particular BGP neighbor. You can also enable the logging of messages generated when a BGP neighbor resets, comes up, or goes down by using the bgp log-neighbor changes router configuration command. In addition, each node has many NSAP addresses. When you enable connectionless routing on the switch by using the clns routing global configuration command, the switch makes only forwarding decisions, with no routing-related functionality.
For dynamic routing, you must also enable a routing protocol. Within an area, all routers know how to reach all the system IDs. Between areas, routers know how to reach the proper area. IS-IS supports two levels of routing: station routing within an area and area routing between areas. Both use the system ID for Level 1 routing routing within an area.
However, they differ in the way addresses are specified for area routing. An IS-IS address includes two fields: a single continuous area field comprising the domain and area fields and the system ID. You then configure the parameters for each instance of the IS-IS routing process. Small IS-IS networks are built as a single area that includes all the routers in the network. As the network grows larger, it is usually reorganized into a backbone area made up of the connected set of all Level 2 routers from all areas, which is in turn connected to local areas.
Within a local area, routers know how to reach all system IDs. Between areas, routers know how to reach the backbone, and the backbone routers know how to reach other areas. Routers establish Level 1 adjacencies to perform routing within a local area station routing. Routers establish Level 2 adjacencies to perform routing between Level 1 areas area routing. A single Cisco router can participate in routing in up to 29 areas and can perform Level 2 routing in the backbone.
In general, each routing process corresponds to an area. By default, the first instance of the routing process configured performs both Level 1and Level 2 routing. You can configure additional router instances, which are automatically treated as Level 1 areas. You must configure the parameters for each instance of the IS-IS routing process individually.
For IS-IS multiarea routing, you can configure only one process to perform Level 2 routing, although you can define up to 29 Level 1 areas for each Cisco unit. If Level 2 routing is configured on any process, all additional processes are automatically configured as Level 1. You can configure this process to perform Level 1 routing at the same time.
If Level 2 routing is not desired for a router instance, remove the Level 2 capability using the is-type global configuration command. Use the is-type command also to configure a different router instance as a Level 2 router. This section briefly describes how to configure IS-IS routing.
It includes this information:. Remaining instances are Level 1 routers. Maximum interval between two consecutive occurrences: 5 seconds. Hold time between the first and second LSP generation: ms. Send LSP refreshes every seconds 15 minutes. NSF 7 Awareness. Enabled 8. Initial PRC calculation delay after a topology change: ms. Hold time between the first and second PRC calculation: ms.
Partition avoidance. No area or domain password is defined, and authentication is disabled. When enabled, if no arguments are entered, the overload bit is set immediately and remains set until you enter the no set-overload-bit command. Maximum interval between consecutive SFPs: 10 seconds.
Initial SFP calculation after a topology change: ms. Holdtime between the first and second SFP calculation: ms. The local router is not necessarily performing NSF, but its awareness of NSF allows the integrity and accuracy of the routing database and link-state database on the neighboring NSF-capable router to be maintained during the switchover process. This feature is automatically enabled and requires no configuration.
You then enable IS-IS routing on the interface and specify the area for each instance of the routing process. You must enter a value if you are configuring multiple IS-IS areas. Later instances are automatically Level 1.
You can change the level of routing by using the is-type global configuration command. Configure the NETs for the routing process. You can specify a name for a NET and for an address. Optional You can configure the router to act as a Level 1 station router, a Level 2 area router for multi-area routing, or both the default :. Specify an interface to route IS-IS, and enter interface configuration mode.
If the interface is not already configured as a Layer 3 interface, enter the no switchport command to put it into Layer 3 mode. Define the IP address for the interface. To disable IS-IS routing, use the no router isis area-tag router configuration command. Specify the IS-IS routing protocol and enter router configuration mode. If you enter route-map map-name, the routing process generates the default route if the route map is satisfied.
This command is enabled by default corrupted LSPs are dropped. To purge the corrupted LSPs, enter the no ignore-lsp-errors router configuration command. Optional Configure the area authentication password, which is inserted in Level 1 station router level LSPs. Optional Configure the routing domain authentication password, which is inserted in Level 2 area router level LSPs. Optional Create a summary of addresses for a given level.
Optional Set an overload bit a hippity bit to allow other routers to ignore the router in their shortest path first SPF calculations if the router is having problems. Optional Set an LSP refresh interval in seconds. The range is from 1 to seconds. The default is to send LSP refreshes every seconds 15 minutes. Optional Set the maximum time that LSP packets remain in the router database without being refreshed. The default is seconds 20 minutes. After the specified time interval, the LSP packet is deleted.
Optional Specify the maximum LSP packet size in bytes. The range is to ; the default is bytes. Optional Causes an IS-IS Level border router to stop advertising the Level 1 area prefix into the Level 2 backbone when full connectivity is lost among the border router, all adjacent level 1 routers, and end hosts.
To disable default route generation, use the no default-information originate router configuration command. Use the no area-password or no domain-password router configuration command to disable passwords. Use the no partition avoidance router configuration command to disable the output format. You can optionally configure certain interface-specific IS-IS parameters, independently from other attached routers. However, if you change some values from the defaults, such as multipliers and time intervals, it makes sense to also change them on multiple routers and interfaces.
Most of the interface parameters can be configured for level 1, level 2, or both. CSNPs are sent by the designated router to maintain database synchronization. This is the maximum rate number of milliseconds between packets at which IS-IS LSPs are re-sent on point-to-point links This interval is different from the retransmission interval, which is the time between successive retransmissions of the same LSP.
Specify the interface to be configured and enter interface configuration mode. Optional Configure the metric or cost for the specified interface. The default is If no level is entered, the default is to apply to both Level 1 and Level 2 routers. Optional Specify the length of time between hello packets sent by the switch. By default, a value three times the hello interval seconds is advertised as the holdtime in the hello packets sent.
With smaller hello intervals, topological changes are detected faster, but there is more routing traffic. Optional Specify the number of IS-IS hello packets a neighbor must miss before the router should declare the adjacency as down. The range is from 3 to The default is 3. Using a smaller hello-multiplier causes fast convergence, but can result in more routing instability. The value you specify should be an integer greater than the expected round-trip delay between any two routers on the network.
The default is determined by the isis lsp-interval command. Optional Configure the priority to use for designated router election. Optional Configure the type of adjacency desired for neighbors on the specified interface specify the interface circuit type. Optional Configure the authentication password for an interface.
By default, authentication is disabled. Specifying Level 1 or Level 2 enables the password only for Level 1 or Level 2 routing, respectively. If you do not specify a level, the default is Level 1 and Level 2. To return to the default settings, use the no forms of the commands.
The Bidirectional Forwarding Detection BFD protocol provides short-duration detection of failures in the path between adjacent forwarding engines while maintaining low networking overheads. When planning a router restart, you should configure this feature on all neighboring routers. When a neighboring router's control plane restarts, a BFD session failure may occur, which does not actually represent a true forwarding failure.
If this happens, you do not want the neighbors of the restarting router to react to the BFD session failure. IS-IS does not have protocol extensions that allow it to signal in advance that it will be restarting. This means that the system cannot distinguish between a real forwarding failure and a restart. We recommend that you configure this feature on the neighbors of a restarting device just prior to the planned restart of that device and that you remove the configuration after the restart has been completed.
The table below shows how the control plane independent failure status received from BFD on a session down event impacts IS-IS handling of that event. Perfrom this task to enable control plane failure checking. Enables the IS-IS routing protocol and enters router configuration mode. Exits router configuration mode and returns to privileged EXEC mode. You can remove all contents of a CLNS cache or remove information for a particular neighbor or route.
You can also display information about specific interfaces, filters, or neighbors. Use the Cisco IOS command reference master index, or search online. Remove end system ES neighbor information from the adjacency database. Remove intermediate system IS neighbor information from the adjacency database. Remove CLNS neighbor information from the adjacency database. Remove dynamically derived CLNS routing information.
Display ES neighbor entries, including the associated areas. Display all the destinations to which this router knows how to route CLNS packets. Display information about the CLNS packets this router has seen. Display a list of all connected routers in all areas.
Display all route maps configured or only the one specified. Discover the paths taken to a specified destination by packets in the network. Display the routing table in which the specified CLNS destination is found. The Bidirectional Forwarding Detection BFD Protocol quickly detects forwarding-path failures for a variety of media types, encapsulations, topologies, and routing protocols.
It operates in a unicast, point-to-point mode on top of any data protocol being forwarded between two systems to track IPv4 connectivity between directly connected neighbors. BFD can be less CPU-intensive than the reduced timers and, because it is not tied to any particular routing protocol, it can be used as a generic and consistent failure detection mechanism for multiple routing protocols.
BFD timers are negotiated and the BFD peers send control packets to each other at the negotiated intervals. If the neighbor is not directly connected, BFD neighbor registration is rejected. Figure shows what happens when a failure occurs in the network 1. If an alternative path is available, the routers start converging on it.
You can use one BFD session for multiple client protocols. The switch supports BFD version 0 and version 1. BFD neighbors automatically negotiate the version and the protocol always runs at the higher version. The default version is version 1. By default, BFD neighbors exchange both control packets and echo packets for detecting forwarding failures. The switch sends echo packets at the configured BFD interval rate from 50 to ms , and control packets at the BFD slow-timer rate from to ms.
In this mode, the switch sends echo packets from the BFD software layer, and the BFD neighbor responds to the echo packets through its fast-switching layer. The echo packets do not reach the BFD neighbor software layer, but are reflected back over the forwarding path for failure detection.
You configure the rate at which each BFD interface sends BFD echo packets by entering the bfd interval interface configuration command. To reduce bandwidth consumption, you can disable the sending of echo packets by entering the no bfd echo interface configuration command. When echo mode is disabled, control packets are used to detect forwarding failures. BFD interval is used to exchange control. In bfd no echo mode, configured BFD interval values from 50 to ms are negotiated at the slow-timer rate and the BFD peers send control packets to each other at the negotiated intervals.
Failure detection time can be between interval values from 50 to ms. You configure the slow timer rate by entering the bfd slow-timer global configuration command. The range is from to ms; the default rate is every ms.
You can enable or disable echo processing at a switch interface independent of the BFD neighbor configuration. Disabling echo mode only disables the sending of echo packets by the interface. The fast-switching layer that receives an echo packet always reflects it back to the sender.
No BFD sessions are configured. BFD is disabled on all interfaces. When configured, BFD version 1 is the default, but switches negotiate for version. Version 0 is also supported. The switch supports multiple BFD sessions at one time. The number of BFD session supported is dependant on the timer value.
BFD is supported on physical interfaces that are configured as routing interfaces. It is not supported on Layer 2 interfaces and pseudowires. Although you can configure BFD interface commands on a Layer 2 port, BFD sessions do not operate on the interface unless it is configured as a Layer 3 interface and assigned an IP address. If you disable it on an interface, you then must disable and reenable it globally for BFD sessions to be active.
Before you can start a BFD session on an interface, you must put the interface into Layer 3 mode and set the baseline BFD parameters on it. Specify an interface for a BFD session, and enter interface configuration mode.
Only physical interfaces support BFD. For example, suppose that there are two controllers with management interface IP addresses, The type is f1 hex. The IP addresses translate to 0a7e7e02 and 0a7f7f Assembling the string then yields fa7e7ea7f7f The Flexible Radio Assignment FRA feature automatically detects when a high number of devices are connected to a network and changes the dual radios in the access point from 2.
The access point performs this function while still monitoring the network for security threats and RF Interference that may affect performance. Flexible Radio Assignment improves mobile user experience for high-density networks. What is a Smart Antenna connector? The E model has a Smart antenna connector see Smart Antenna Connector E Model , which is connected directly to the flexible radio. Without a supported external antenna connected to the Smart Antenna connector, the flexible radio can stay only in 2.
If an external antenna is connected, the flexible radio can be used in the full Flexible Radio Assignment mode, allowing dual 5 GHz and Wireless Security Monitoring modes. With the increasing popularity of Hence, there is a need for a technology that supports speeds higher than 1 Gbps on all cabling infrastructure.
Cisco Multigigabit technology allows you to achieve bandwidth speeds from 1 to 10 Gbps over traditional Cat 5e cabling or newer. This provides up to 2 Gbps of uplink speed to the access point. What is a ClientLink 4. How is it different from Tx-Beamforming? Cisco ClientLink 4. ClientLink also enhances performance in the uplink client-to-AP direction, so that the AP can also better hear the client communications. ClientLink works with all client technologies.
It makes sure each client type always operates at the best possible rate, as determined by the ClientLink helps maintain maximum client rates. The is no software support for the USB port at this time. All user documentation for the Cisco Aironet series access point is available at the following URL:. For detailed information and guidelines for configuring and deploying your access point in a wireless network, see the following documentation:.
This section provides declarations of conformity and regulatory information for the Cisco Aironet Series Access Points. You can find additional information at this URL:. Cisco Systems, Inc. This device complies with Part 15 rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:. This device may not cause harmful interference, and. This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the equipment is operated in a residential environment. This equipment generates, uses, and radiates radio frequency energy, and if not installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference. However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur. If this equipment does cause interference to radio or television reception, which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to correct the interference by one of the following measures:.
This section provides guidelines for avoiding interference when operating Cisco Aironet access points in Japan. These guidelines are provided in both Japanese and English. This equipment operates in the same frequency bandwidth as industrial, scientific, and medical devices such as microwave ovens and mobile object identification RF-ID systems licensed premises radio stations and unlicensed specified low-power radio stations used in factory production lines.
Before using this equipment, make sure that no premises radio stations or specified low-power radio stations of RF-ID are used in the vicinity. If this equipment causes RF interference to a premises radio station of RF-ID, promptly change the frequency or stop using the device; contact the number below and ask for recommendations on avoiding radio interference, such as setting partitions. Operation is subject to the following two conditions: 1 this device may not cause interference, and 2 this device must accept any interference, including interference that may cause undesired operation of the device.
Under Industry Canada regulations, this radio transmitter may only operate using an antenna of a type and maximum or lesser gain approved for the transmitter by Industry Canada. To reduce potential radio interference to other users, the antenna type and its gain should be so chosen that the equivalent isotropically radiated power e.
This radio transmitter has been approved by Industry Canada to operate with the antenna types listed below with the maximum permissible gain and required antenna impedance for each antenna type indicated. Antenna types not included in this list, having a gain greater than the maximum gain indicated for that type, are strictly prohibited for use with this device.
Operation in the band MHz is only for indoor use to reduce the potential for harmful interference to co-channel mobile satellite systems. Users are advised that high-power radars are allocated as primary users i.
The conformity assessment procedure referred to in Article For more details, contact Cisco Corporate Compliance. Declaration of Conformity for RF Exposure. This section contains information on compliance with guidelines related to RF exposure.
The Cisco products are designed to comply with the following national and international standards on Human Exposure to Radio Frequencies:. To ensure compliance with various national and international Electromagnetic Field EMF standards, the system should only be operated with Cisco approved antennas and accessories.
The series device includes a radio transmitter and receiver. It is designed not to exceed the limits for exposure to radio waves radio frequency electromagnetic fields recommended by international guidelines. The guidelines were developed by an independent scientific organization ICNIRP and include a substantial safety margin designed to ensure the safety of all persons, regardless of age and health.
As such the systems are designed to be operated as to avoid contact with the antennas by the end user. It is recommended to set the system in a location where the antennas can remain at least a minimum distance as specified from the user in accordance to the regulatory guidelines which are designed to reduce the overall exposure of the user or operator.
The World Health Organization has stated that present scientific information does not indicate the need for any special precautions for the use of wireless devices. They recommend that if you are interested in further reducing your exposure then you can easily do so by reorienting antennas away from the user or placing he antennas at a greater separation distance then recommended.
It is designed not to exceed the limits for exposure to radio waves radio frequency electromagnetic fields as referenced in FCC Part 1. The device has been tested and found compliant with the applicable regulations as part of the radio certification process. The US Food and Drug Administration has stated that present scientific information does not indicate the need for any special precautions for the use of wireless devices. The FCC recommends that if you are interested in further reducing your exposure then you can easily do so by reorienting antennas away from the user or placing the antennas at a greater separation distance then recommended or lowering the transmitter power output.
It is designed not to exceed the limits for exposure to radio waves radio frequency electromagnetic fields as referenced in Health Canada Safety Code 6. The guidelines include a substantial safety margin designed into the limit to ensure the safety of all persons, regardless of age and health. Health Canada states that present scientific information does not indicate the need for any special precautions for the use of wireless devices. They recommend that if you are interested in further reducing your exposure you can easily do so by reorienting antennas away from the user, placing the antennas at a greater separation distance than recommended, or lowering the transmitter power output.
You can find additional information on the subject at the following links:. You can obtain additional information from the following organizations:. This section provides administrative rules for operating Cisco Aironet access points in Taiwan. The rules for all access points are provided in both Chinese and English. For those low-power radio-frequency devices that have already received a type-approval, companies, business units or users should not change its frequencies, increase its power or change its original features and functions.
The operation of the low-power radio-frequency devices is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference is caused to aviation safety and authorized radio station; and if interference is caused, the user must stop operating the device immediately and can't re-operate it until the harmful interference is clear. The authorized radio station means a radio-communication service operating in accordance with the Communication Act. The operation of the low-power radio-frequency devices is subject to the interference caused by the operation of an authorized radio station, by another intentional or unintentional radiator, by industrial, scientific and medical ISM equipment, or by an incidental radiator.
Low-power Radio-frequency Devices Technical Specifications. Within the 5. The U-NII devices shall accept any interference from legal communications and shall not interfere the legal communications. If interference is caused, the user must stop operating the device immediately and can't re-operate it until the harmful interference is clear. Manufacturers of U-NII devices are responsible for ensuring frequency stability such that an emission is maintained within the band of operation under all conditions of normal operation as specified in the user manual.
This section contains special information for operation of Cisco Aironet access points in Brazil. This equipment operates on a secondary basis and consequently must accept harmful interference, including interference from stations of the same kind. This equipment may not cause harmful interference to systems operating on a primary basis.
Declaration of Conformity Statements. Cisco Bug Search Tool BST is a web-based tool that acts as a gateway to the Cisco bug tracking system that maintains a comprehensive list of defects and vulnerabilities in Cisco products and software.
BST provides you with detailed defect information about your products and software. All rights reserved. To view a list of Cisco trademarks, go to this URL: www. Third-party trademarks mentioned are the property of their respective owners. The use of the word partner does not imply a partnership relationship between Cisco and any other company.
Skip to content Skip to search Skip to footer. Log in to Save Content. Available Languages. Download Options. Updated: February 5, Internal Antennas The I has 12 cross polarized internal antennas. External Antennas The E and P models are configured with up to four external dual-band dipole antennas, and two 2. Safety Instructions Translated versions of the following safety warnings are provided in the translated safety warnings document that is shipped with your access point.
Unpacking To unpack the access point, follow these steps: Unpack and remove the access point and the accessory kit from the shipping box. Return any packing material to the shipping container and save it for future use. Verify that you have received the items listed below. If any item is missing or damaged, contact your Cisco representative or reseller for instructions. Face of the E and P Models. Ports and Connections on the Head of the AP.
Preparing the AP for Installation Before you mount and deploy your access point, we recommend that you perform a site survey or use the site planning tool to determine the best location to install your access point. Performing a Pre-Installation Configuration The following procedures ensure that your access point installation and initial operation go as expected. Pre-Installation Configuration Setup. Configure the switch to which your access point is to attach. Set the Cisco wireless LAN controller as the master so that new access points always join with it.
Make sure DHCP is enabled on the network. Mounting and Grounding the Access Point Cisco Aironet series access points can be mounted in several configurations — on a suspended ceiling, on a hard ceiling or wall, on an electrical or network box, and above a suspended ceiling. Mount the AP using no less than four screw holes on a bracket. Connect and power up the access point. When you power up the access point, it begins a power-up sequence that you can verify by observing the access point LED.
If the power-up sequence is successful, the discovery and join process begins. During this process, the LED blinks sequentially green, red, and off. When the access point has joined a controller, the LED is chirping green if no clients are associated or green if one or more clients are associated. If the LED is not on, the access point is most likely not receiving power.
If the LED blinks sequentially for more than 5 minutes, the access point is unable to find its primary, secondary, and tertiary Cisco wireless LAN controller. Check the connection between the access point and the Cisco wireless LAN controller, and be sure the access point and the Cisco wireless LAN controller are either on the same subnet or that the access point has a route back to its primary, secondary, and tertiary Cisco wireless LAN controller.
Also, if the access point is not on the same subnet as the Cisco wireless LAN controller, be sure that there is a properly configured DHCP server on the same subnet as the access point. Create the DHCP pool, including the necessary parameters such as default router and name server. Smart Antenna Connector E Model. Declarations of Conformity and Regulatory Information This section provides declarations of conformity and regulatory information for the Cisco Aironet Series Access Points.
You can find additional information at this URL: www. Japanese Translation. English Translation This equipment operates in the same frequency bandwidth as industrial, scientific, and medical devices such as microwave ovens and mobile object identification RF-ID systems licensed premises radio stations and unlicensed specified low-power radio stations used in factory production lines.
Chinese Translation. English Translation Administrative Rules for Low-power Radio-Frequency Devices Article 12 For those low-power radio-frequency devices that have already received a type-approval, companies, business units or users should not change its frequencies, increase its power or change its original features and functions. Article 14 The operation of the low-power radio-frequency devices is subject to the conditions that no harmful interference is caused to aviation safety and authorized radio station; and if interference is caused, the user must stop operating the device immediately and can't re-operate it until the harmful interference is clear.
English Translation This equipment operates on a secondary basis and consequently must accept harmful interference, including interference from stations of the same kind. Cisco Bug Search Tool Cisco Bug Search Tool BST is a web-based tool that acts as a gateway to the Cisco bug tracking system that maintains a comprehensive list of defects and vulnerabilities in Cisco products and software. Was this Document Helpful? Yes No Feedback. Dual-band, controller-based
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