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Keyboard Configuration. Using your mouse, select the correct layout type for example, U. English for the keyboard you would prefer to use for the installation and as the system default refer to the figure below. Once you have made your selection, click Next to continue. To change your keyboard layout type after you have completed the installation, use the Keyboard Configuration Tool.

Type the system-config-keyboard command in a shell prompt to launch the Keyboard Configuration Tool. If you are not root, it prompts you for the root password to continue. Enter the Installation Number. Enter your Installation Number refer to Figure 4. This number will determine the package selection set that is available to the installer. If you choose to skip entering the installation number you will be presented with a basic selection of packages to install later on.

Disk Partitioning Setup. Partitioning allows you to divide your hard drive into isolated sections, where each section behaves as its own hard drive. Partitioning is particularly useful if you run multiple operating systems. If you are not sure how you want your system to be partitioned, read Chapter 26, An Introduction to Disk Partitions for more information.

On this screen you can choose to create the default layout or choose to manual partition using the 'Create custom layout' option of Disk Druid. The first three options allow you to perform an automated installation without having to partition your drive s yourself.

If you do not feel comfortable with partitioning your system, it is recommended that you do not choose to create a custom layout and instead let the installation program partition for you. You can configure an iSCSI target for installation, or disable a dmraid device from this screen by clicking on the 'Advanced storage configuration' button.

For more information refer to Section 4. If you choose to create a custom layout using Disk Druid , refer to Section 4. If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup phase of the installation saying something similar to:. Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems, causing data to be lost assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began.

No matter what type of installation you are performing, backups of the existing data on your systems should always be made. Note that migrating the root file system of an existing Red Hat Enterprise Linux installation from single path storage to multipath storage is not supported.

You must perform a new installation to move the root file system to a multipath storage device. Therefore you should plan your installation accordingly. Advanced Storage Options. From this screen you can choose to disable a dmraid device, in which case the individual elements of the dmraid device will appear as separate hard drives. If a network connection is not already active, the installer prompts you to provide details of your network interface.

Select your network interface from the drop-down menu, then either leave the Use dynamic IP configuration box checked, or uncheck it to enter the IP address of your system and the IP addresses of the gateway and nameserver on your network. Ensure that the Enable IPv4 box remains checked. Create Default Layout. Create default layout allows you to have some control concerning what data is removed if any from your system. Your options are:.

Remove all partitions on selected drives and create default layout — select this option to remove all partitions on your hard drive s this includes partitions created by other operating systems such as Windows VFAT or NTFS partitions.

If you select this option, all data on the selected hard drive s is removed by the installation program. Do not select this option if you have information that you want to keep on the hard drive s where you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Remove Linux partitions on selected drives and create default layout — select this option to remove only Linux partitions partitions created from a previous Linux installation. Use free space on selected drives and create default layout — select this option to retain your current data and partitions, assuming you have enough free space available on your hard drive s.

Using your mouse, choose the storage drive s on which you want Red Hat Enterprise Linux to be installed. If you have two or more drives, you can choose which drive s should contain this installation. Unselected drives, and any data on them, are not touched. It is always a good idea to back up any data that you have on your systems. For example, if you are upgrading or creating a dual-boot system, you should back up any data you wish to keep on your drive s.

Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss of all your data. An internal hard drive is necessary to use for partition creation with problematic RAID cards. To review and make any necessary changes to the partitions created by automatic partitioning, select the Review option. After selecting Review and clicking Next to move forward, the partitions created for you in Disk Druid appear. You can make modifications to these partitions if they do not meet your needs. Click Next once you have made your selections to proceed.

Partitioning Your System. If you chose one of the three automatic partitioning options and did not select Review , skip ahead to Section 4. If you chose one of the automatic partitioning options and selected Review , you can either accept the current partition settings click Next , or modify the setup using Disk Druid , the manual partitioning tool. Please note that in the text mode installation it is not possible to work with LVM Logical Volumes beyond viewing the existing setup.

LVM can only be set up using the graphical Disk Druid program in a graphical installation. If you chose to create a custom layout, you must tell the installation program where to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux. This is done by defining mount points for one or more disk partitions in which Red Hat Enterprise Linux is installed. If you have not yet planned how to set up your partitions, refer to Chapter 26, An Introduction to Disk Partitions and Section 4.

At a bare minimum, you need an appropriately-sized root partition, and a swap partition equal to twice the amount of RAM you have on the system. The partitioning tool used by the installation program is Disk Druid.

With the exception of certain esoteric situations, Disk Druid can handle the partitioning requirements for a typical installation. Graphical Display of Hard Drive s. Disk Druid offers a graphical representation of your hard drive s. Using your mouse, click once to highlight a particular field in the graphical display. Double-click to edit an existing partition or to create a partition out of existing free space.

Disk Druid 's Buttons. These buttons control Disk Druid's actions. They are used to change the attributes of a partition for example the file system type and mount point and also to create RAID devices. Buttons on this screen are also used to accept the changes you have made, or to exit Disk Druid. For further explanation, take a look at each button in order:. New : Used to request a new partition. When selected, a dialog box appears containing fields such as the mount point and size fields that must be filled in.

Edit : Used to modify attributes of the partition currently selected in the Partitions section. Selecting Edit opens a dialog box. Some or all of the fields can be edited, depending on whether the partition information has already been written to disk.

You can also edit free space as represented in the graphical display to create a new partition within that space. Either highlight the free space and then select the Edit button, or double-click on the free space to edit it.

Delete : Used to remove the partition currently highlighted in the Current Disk Partitions section. You will be asked to confirm the deletion of any partition. Reset : Used to restore Disk Druid to its original state. All changes made will be lost if you Reset the partitions. RAID : Used to provide redundancy to any or all disk partitions.

It should only be used if you have experience using RAID. The role of LVM Logical Volume Manager is to present a simple logical view of underlying physical storage space, such as a hard drive s. LVM manages individual physical disks — or to be more precise, the individual partitions present on them. It should only be used if you have experience using LVM. Note, LVM is only available in the graphical installation program. Partition Fields. Above the partition hierarchy are labels which present information about the partitions you are creating.

The labels are defined as follows:. Device : This field displays the partition's device name. This field indicates where the partition is mounted. If a partition exists, but is not set, then you need to define its mount point. Double-click on the partition or click the Edit button. Type : This field shows the partition's file system type for example, ext2, ext3, or vfat.

Format : This field shows if the partition being created will be formatted. Start : This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition begins. End : This field shows the cylinder on your hard drive where the partition ends. Recommended Partitioning Scheme. Itanium systems. Unless you have a reason for doing otherwise, we recommend that you create the following partitions for Itanium systems:. A swap partition at least MB — swap partitions are used to support virtual memory.

In other words, data is written to a swap partition when there is not enough RAM to store the data your system is processing. In years past, the recommended amount of swap space increased linearly with the amount of RAM in the system. But because the amount of memory in modern systems has increased into the hundreds of gigabytes, it is now recognized that the amount of swap space that a system needs is a function of the memory workload running on that system.

However, given that swap space is usually designated at install time, and that it can be difficult to determine beforehand the memory workload of a system, we recommend determining system swap using the following table. Note that you can obtain better performance by distributing swap space over multiple storage devices, particularly on systems with fast drives, controllers, and interfaces. A root partition 3. Due to limitations, creating a native ext3 partition to hold these files is required.

For most users, a MB boot partition is sufficient. A home partition at least MB — for storing user data separately from system data. This will enable you to upgrade or reinstall Red Hat Enterprise Linux without erasing user data files. Adding Partitions. To add a new partition, select the New button.

A dialog box appears refer to Figure 4. You must dedicate at least one partition for this installation, and optionally more. Mount Point : Enter the partition's mount point. You can also use the pull-down menu to choose the correct mount point for your partition.

For a swap partition the mount point should not be set - setting the filesystem type to swap is sufficient. File System Type : Using the pull-down menu, select the appropriate file system type for this partition. For more information on file system types, refer to Section 4. Allowable Drives : This field contains a list of the hard disks installed on your system.

If a hard disk's box is highlighted, then a desired partition can be created on that hard disk. If the box is not checked, then the partition will never be created on that hard disk. By using different checkbox settings, you can have Disk Druid place partitions where you need them, or let Disk Druid decide where partitions should go. Size MB : Enter the size in megabytes of the partition.

Note, this field starts with MB; unless changed, only a MB partition will be created. Additional Size Options : Choose whether to keep this partition at a fixed size, to allow it to "grow" fill up the available hard drive space to a certain point, or to allow it to grow to fill any remaining hard drive space available. If you choose Fill all space up to MB , you must give size constraints in the field to the right of this option. This allows you to keep a certain amount of space free on your hard drive for future use.

Force to be a primary partition : Select whether the partition you are creating should be one of the first four partitions on the hard drive. If unselected, the partition is created as a logical partition. Encrypt : Choose whether to encrypt the partition so that the data stored on it cannot be accessed without a passphrase, even if the storage device is connected to another system.

Refer to Chapter 29, Disk Encryption Guide for information on encryption of storage devices. If you select this option, the installer prompts you to provide a passphrase before it writes the partition to the disk. OK : Select OK once you are satisfied with the settings and wish to create the partition.

Cancel : Select Cancel if you do not want to create the partition. File System Types. Red Hat Enterprise Linux allows you to create different partition types, based on the file system they will use. The following is a brief description of the different file systems available, and how they can be utilized. Using a journaling file system reduces time spent recovering a file system after a crash as there is no need to fsck [2] the file system.

A maximum file system size of 16TB is supported for ext3. The ext3 file system is selected by default and is highly recommended. It provides the ability to assign long file names, up to characters. LVM can improve performance when using physical disks. Editing Partitions. To edit a partition, select the Edit button or double-click on the existing partition. If the partition already exists on your disk, you can only change the partition's mount point.

To make any other changes, you must delete the partition and recreate it. Deleting a Partition. To delete a partition, highlight it in the Partitions section and click the Delete button. Confirm the deletion when prompted. For further installation instructions for Itanium systems, skip to Section 4. To boot the system without boot media, you usually need to install a boot loader.

A boot loader is the first software program that runs when a computer starts. It is responsible for loading and transferring control to the operating system kernel software. The kernel, in turn, initializes the rest of the operating system.

GRUB can load a variety of free operating systems, as well as proprietary operating systems with chain-loading the mechanism for loading unsupported operating systems, such as DOS or Windows, by loading another boot loader. If you do not want to install GRUB as your boot loader, click Change boot loader , where you can choose not to install a boot loader at all.

If you already have a boot loader that can boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux and do not want to overwrite your current boot loader, choose Do not install a boot loader by clicking on the Change boot loader button. If you choose not to install GRUB for any reason, you will not be able to boot the system directly, and you must use another boot method such as a commercial boot loader application.

Use this option only if you are sure you have another way of booting the system! Every bootable partition is listed, including partitions used by other operating systems. Other partitions may also have boot labels. To add or change the boot label for other partitions that have been detected by the installation program, click once on the partition to select it.

Once selected, you can change the boot label by clicking the Edit button. Select Default beside the preferred boot partition to choose your default bootable OS. You cannot move forward in the installation unless you choose a default boot image. The Label column lists what you must enter at the boot prompt, in non-graphical boot loaders, in order to boot the desired operating system.

Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, use the arrow keys to choose a boot label or type e for edit. You are presented with a list of items in the configuration file for the boot label you have selected.

Boot loader passwords provide a security mechanism in an environment where physical access to your server is available. If you are installing a boot loader, you should create a password to protect your system. Without a boot loader password, users with access to your system can pass options to the kernel which can compromise your system security.

With a boot loader password in place, the password must first be entered before selecting any non-standard boot options. Security plans which include boot loader passwords should also address alternate boot methods. If you choose to use a boot loader password to enhance your system security, be sure to select the checkbox labeled Use a boot loader password.

If you use a keyboard with a significantly different layout, it might be more effective to memorize a pattern of keystrokes rather than the word that the pattern produces. To configure more advanced boot loader options, such as changing the drive order or passing options to the kernel, be sure Configure advanced boot loader options is selected before clicking Next. If you are installing Red Hat Enterprise Linux on a network device accessible through multiple paths, ensure that you select Configure advanced boot loader options before you click Next.

Advanced Boot Loader Configuration. Now that you have chosen which boot loader to install, you can also determine where you want the boot loader to be installed. You may install the boot loader in one of two places:.

The master boot record MBR — This is the recommended place to install a boot loader, unless the MBR already starts another operating system loader, such as System Commander. The MBR is a special area on your hard drive that is automatically loaded by your computer's BIOS, and is the earliest point at which the boot loader can take control of the boot process.

You can then boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux or any other operating system that you have configured the boot loader to boot. The first sector of your boot partition — This is recommended if you are already using another boot loader on your system. In this case, your other boot loader takes control first.

Click the Change Drive Order button if you would like to rearrange the drive order or if your BIOS does not return the correct drive order. While partitioning your hard drive, keep in mind that the BIOS in some older systems cannot access more than the first cylinders on a hard drive. The other Linux partitions can be after cylinder In parted , cylinders equals MB.

For more information, refer to:. To add default options to the boot command, enter them into the Kernel parameters field. Any options you enter are passed to the Linux kernel every time it boots. Rescue Mode. Rescue mode provides the ability to boot a small Red Hat Enterprise Linux environment entirely from boot media or some other boot method instead of the system's hard drive. There may be times when you are unable to get Red Hat Enterprise Linux running completely enough to access files on your system's hard drive.

Using rescue mode, you can access the files stored on your system's hard drive, even if you cannot actually run Red Hat Enterprise Linux from that hard drive. If you need to use rescue mode, try the following method:.

Itanium users should type elilo linux rescue to enter rescue mode. Alternative Boot Loaders. It is also available from. You can load Linux using commercial boot loaders. In Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5. This same kernel can run on single CPUs with a single core and no hyperthreading. Network Configuration. If you do not have a network device, this screen does not appear during your installation and you should advance to Section 4.

The installation program automatically detects any network devices you have and displays them in the Network Devices list. When you have selected a network device, click Edit. If you do not have DHCP client access or you are unsure what to provide here, contact your network administrator.

Do not use the numbers as seen in this sample configuration. These values will not work for your own network configuration. If you are not sure what values to enter, contact your network administrator for assistance. If you have a hostname fully qualified domain name for the network device, you can choose to have DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol automatically detect it or you can manually enter the hostname in the field provided.

Even if your computer is not part of a network, you can enter a hostname for your system. If you do not take this opportunity to enter a name, your system will be known as localhost. To change your network configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Network Administration Tool.

Type the system-config-network command in a shell prompt to launch the Network Administration Tool. Time Zone Configuration. Set your time zone by selecting the city closest to your computer's physical location. Click on the map to zoom in to a particular geographical region of the world. Using your mouse, click on the interactive map to select a specific city represented by a yellow dot. A red X appears indicating your selection.

You can also scroll through the list at the bottom of the screen to select your time zone. Using your mouse, click on a location to highlight your selection. To change your time zone configuration after you have completed the installation, use the Time and Date Properties Tool.

Type the system-config-date command in a shell prompt to launch the Time and Date Properties Tool. To run the Time and Date Properties Tool as a text-based application, use the command timeconfig. Set Root Password. Setting up a root account and password is one of the most important steps during your installation.

Your root account is similar to the administrator account used on Windows NT machines. The root account is used to install packages, upgrade RPMs, and perform most system maintenance. Logging in as root gives you complete control over your system. The root user also known as the superuser has complete access to the entire system; for this reason, logging in as the root user is best done only to perform system maintenance or administration.

Use the root account only for system administration. Create a non-root account for your general use and su - to root when you need to fix something quickly. These basic rules minimize the chances of a typo or an incorrect command doing damage to your system. To become root, type su - at the shell prompt in a terminal window and then press Enter.

Then, enter the root password and press Enter. The installation program prompts you to set a root password [3] for your system. You cannot proceed to the next stage of the installation process without entering a root password. The root password must be at least six characters long; the password you type is not echoed to the screen. You must enter the password twice; if the two passwords do not match, the installation program asks you to enter them again. You should make the root password something you can remember, but not something that is easy for someone else to guess.

Your name, your phone number, qwerty , password, root , , and anteater are all examples of bad passwords. Good passwords mix numerals with upper and lower case letters and do not contain dictionary words: Aardvark or BMttNT , for example. Remember that the password is case-sensitive. If you write down your password, keep it in a secure place. However, it is recommended that you do not write down this or any password you create. Do not use one of the example passwords offered in this manual.

Using one of these passwords could be considered a security risk. To change your root password after you have completed the installation, use the Root Password Tool. Type the system-config-rootpassword command in a shell prompt to launch the Root Password Tool.

Package Group Selection. Now that you have made most of the choices for your installation, you are ready to confirm the default package selection or customize packages for your system. This screen varies depending on the version of Red Hat Enterprise Linux you are installing.

If you choose to accept the current package list, skip ahead to Section 4. To customize your package set further, select the Customize now option on the screen. Clicking Next takes you to the Package Group Selection screen. You can select package groups, which group components together according to function for example, X Window System and Editors , individual packages, or a combination of the two.

Users of Itanium systems who want support for developing or running bit applications are encouraged to select the Compatibility Arch Support and Compatibility Arch Development Support packages to install architecture specific support for their systems. To select a component, click on the checkbox beside it refer to Figure 4. Once a package group has been selected, if optional components are available you can click on Optional packages to view which packages are installed by default, and to add or remove optional packages from that group.

If there are no optional components this button will be disabled. Preparing to Install. Prepare to Install. A screen preparing you for the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux now appears. If, for some reason, you would rather not continue with the installation process, this is your last opportunity to safely cancel the process and reboot your machine. Once you press the Next button, partitions are written and packages are installed.

If you wish to abort the installation, you should reboot now before any existing information on any hard drive is rewritten. Installing Packages. At this point there is nothing left for you to do until all the packages have been installed. How quickly this happens depends on the number of packages you have selected and your computer's speed.

Installation Complete. The installation program prompts you to prepare your system for reboot. Remember to remove any installation media if it is not ejected automatically upon reboot. After your computer's normal power-up sequence has completed, the graphical boot loader prompt appears at which you can do any of the following things:.

Press Enter — causes the default boot entry to be booted. Select a boot label, followed by Enter — causes the boot loader to boot the operating system corresponding to the boot label. Do nothing — after the boot loader's timeout period, by default, five seconds the boot loader automatically boots the default boot entry.

Do whatever is appropriate to boot Red Hat Enterprise Linux. One or more screens of messages should scroll by. The first time you start your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system in run level 5 the graphical run level , the Setup Agent is presented, which guides you through the Red Hat Enterprise Linux configuration. Using this tool, you can set your system time and date, install software, register your machine with Red Hat Network, and more. The Setup Agent lets you configure your environment at the beginning, so that you can get started using your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system quickly.

After you reboot your system at the end of the installation program, type the following command to boot into Red Hat Enterprise Linux:. The first kernel listed in the file is the default. For example, to load the kernel named linux , type:.

For example, if fs0 is the system boot partition, type fs0: at the EFI Shell prompt. This command displays the contents of the configuration file. Each stanza contains a line beginning with label followed by a label name for that kernel. The label name is what you type after elilo to boot the different kernels. Post-Installation Boot Loader Options. To pass options to the boot loader, enter the following at the EFI Shell prompt replace linux with the label name of the kernel you want to boot and option with the boot options you want to pass to the kernel :.

This option works for most cases. Next, you want to make the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 menu item the default. A list of boot options appears. Move the Red Hat Enterprise Linux 5 menu item up to the top of the list by selecting it with the arrow keys and pressing the u key to move it up the list. You can move items down the list by selecting it and pressing the d key. Choose Exit to return to the Main Menu. Using a Startup Script. However, if you require additional commands to be executed before starting the ELILO boot loader, you can create a startup script named startup.

The last command should be elilo to boot into Linux. The startup. If you want to pass options to the boot loader refer to Section 4. Type ls to make sure you are in the correct partition. Then type edit startup. Type the contents of the file and save it. The next time the system boots, EFI detects the startup. This aborts the process, and returns you to the EFI shell prompt. You should only log in as root when needed for system maintenance. The root account does not operate within the restrictions placed on normal user accounts, so changes made as root can have implications for your entire system.

Chapter 5. Removing Red Hat Enterprise Linux. It is always a good idea to backup any data that you have on your system s. Mistakes do happen and can result in the loss all of your data. The command should look like the following:. If you need to remove Linux from a hard drive and have attempted to do this with the default DOS Windows fdisk , you will experience the Partitions exist but they do not exist problem.

Once you have booted off the CD, a boot prompt appears. At the boot prompt, type: linux rescue. This starts the rescue mode program. You are prompted for your keyboard and language requirements. Enter these values as you would during the installation of Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Next, a screen appears telling you that the program attempts to find a Red Hat Enterprise Linux install to rescue.

Select Skip on this screen. After selecting Skip , you are given a command prompt where you can access the partitions you would like to remove. First, type the command list-harddrives. This command lists all hard drives on your system that are recognizable by the installation program, as well as their sizes in megabytes.

Be careful to remove only the necessary Red Hat Enterprise Linux partitions. Removing other partitions could result in data loss or a corrupted system environment. To remove partitions, use the partitioning utility parted. Using the print command, view the current partition table to determine the minor number of the partition to remove:.

The print command also displays the partition's type such as linux-swap, ext2, ext3, and so on. Knowing the type of the partition helps you in determining whether to remove the partition. Remove the partition with the command rm. For example, to remove the partition with minor number The changes start taking place as soon as you press [Enter], so review the command before committing to it. After removing the partition, use the print command to confirm that it is removed from the partition table.

Once you have removed the Linux partitions and made all of the changes you need to make, type quit to quit parted. After quitting parted , type exit at the boot prompt to exit rescue mode and reboot your system, instead of continuing with the installation. The system should reboot automatically. Chapter 6. If you have performed an installation and cannot boot your system properly, you may need to reinstall and create your partitions differently.

At the end of an installation, a text-based screen showing the boot loader prompt for example, GRUB: and a flashing cursor may be all that appears. If this is the case, you must repartition your system. Once these changes have been made, you should be able to finish your installation and boot the system properly.

A signal 11 error, commonly know as a segmentation fault , means that the program accessed a memory location that was not assigned to it. A signal 11 error may be due to a bug in one of the software programs that is installed, or faulty hardware. If you receive a fatal signal 11 error during your installation, it is probably due to a hardware error in memory on your system's bus. Like other operating systems, Red Hat Enterprise Linux places its own demands on your system's hardware.

Some of this hardware may not be able to meet those demands, even if they work properly under another OS. Ensure that you have the latest installation updates and images from Red Hat. Review the online errata to see if newer versions are available. If the latest images still fail, it may be due to a problem with your hardware. Commonly, these errors are in your memory or CPU-cache. You could also try to swap your memory around in the motherboard slots to check if the problem is either slot or memory related.

To use this test, type the following command at the boot: or yaboot: prompt prepend with elilo for Itanium systems :. Trouble Beginning the Installation. Problems with Booting into the Graphical Installation. There are some video cards that have trouble booting into the graphical installation program. If the installation program does not run using its default settings, it tries to run in a lower resolution mode.

If that still fails, the installation program attempts to run in text mode. This option may be most helpful for laptop users. If this works, it should be reported as a bug as the installer has failed to autodetect your videocard. To disable frame buffer support and allow the installation program to run in text mode, try using the nofb boot option.

This command may be necessary for accessibility with some screen reading hardware. Trouble During the Installation. If you receive an error message stating No devices found to install Red Hat Enterprise Linux , there is probably a SCSI controller that is not being recognized by the installation program.

Check your hardware vendor's website to determine if a driver diskette image is available that fixes your problem. For more general information on driver diskettes, refer to Chapter 7, Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems. If you receive a traceback error message during installation, you can usually save it to a diskette. If you do not have a diskette drive available in your system, you can scp the error message to a remote system. Trouble with Partition Tables. If you receive an error after the Disk Partitioning Setup Section 4.

The partition table on device hda was unreadable. Users who have used programs such as EZ-BIOS have experienced similar problems, causing data to be lost assuming the data was not backed up before the installation began that could not be recovered. Using Remaining Space. Other Partitioning Problems. If you are using Disk Druid to create partitions, but cannot move to the next screen, you probably have not created all the partitions necessary for Disk Druid 's dependencies to be satisfied.

When defining a partition's type as swap, do not assign it a mount point. Disk Druid automatically assigns the mount point for you. When defining a partition's type as swap, you do not have to assign it a mount point. Are You Seeing Python Errors?

During some upgrades or installations of Red Hat Enterprise Linux, the installation program also known as anaconda may fail with a Python or traceback error. The error may look similar to:. These symbolic or changed links are invalid during the installation process, so the installation program cannot write information and fails.

If you experience such an error, first try to download any available errata for anaconda. Errata can be found at:. The anaconda website may also be a useful reference and can be found online at:. You can also search for bug reports related to this problem. To search Red Hat's bug tracking system, go to:. Finally, if you are still facing problems related to this error, register your product and contact our support team. To register your product, go to:. Problems After Installation.

If you are experiencing problems with GRUB, you may need to disable the graphical boot screen. Within the grub. Press Enter to exit the editing mode. Once the boot loader screen has returned, type b to boot the system. Once you reboot, the grub. You may re-enable the graphical boot screen by uncommenting or adding the above line back into the grub.

Booting into a Graphical Environment. If you have installed the X Window System but are not seeing a graphical desktop environment once you log into your Red Hat Enterprise Linux system, you can start the X Window System graphical interface using the command startx. Once you enter this command and press Enter , the graphical desktop environment is displayed. Note, however, that this is just a one-time fix and does not change the log in process for future log ins.

When you are finished, reboot the computer. The next time you log in, you are presented with a graphical login prompt. Open a shell prompt. If you are in your user account, become root by typing the su command. Within the first screen, a section of the file which looks like the following appears:.

To change from a console to a graphical login, you should change the number in the line idinitdefault: from a 3 to a 5. Change only the number of the default runlevel from 3 to 5. A window appears and asks if you would like to save the changes. Click Save. The next time you log in after rebooting your system, you are presented with a graphical login prompt.

If you are having trouble getting X the X Window System to start, you may not have installed it during your installation. If you are having trouble with the X server crashing when anyone other than root logs in, you may have a full file system or, a lack of available hard drive space. To verify that this is the problem you are experiencing, run the following command:. The df command should help you diagnose which partition is full. For additional information about df and an explanation of the options available such as the -h option used in this example , refer to the df man page by typing man df at a shell prompt.

You can make some room on that partition by removing old files. After you free up some disk space, try running X as the user that was unsuccessful before. If you did not create a user account in the Setup Agent , log in as root and use the password you assigned to root.

If you cannot remember your root password, boot your system as linux single. Itanium users must enter boot commands with elilo followed by the boot command. Choose the line that starts with kernel and type e to edit this boot entry. Once you have booted into single user mode and have access to the prompt, you must type passwd root , which allows you to enter a new password for root. At this point you can type shutdown -r now to reboot the system with the new root password. If you cannot remember your user account password, you must become root.

To become root, type su - and enter your root password when prompted. This allows you to enter a new password for the specified user account. If the graphical login screen does not appear, check your hardware for compatibility issues.

The Hardware Compatibility List can be found at:. Sometimes, the kernel does not recognize all of your memory RAM. Verify that the displayed quantity is the same as the known amount of RAM in your system. Replace xx with the amount of RAM you have in megabytes. Once you reboot, the changes made to grub.

Once you have loaded the GRUB boot screen, type e for edit. Remember to replace xx with the amount of RAM in your system. Press Enter to boot. Your Printer Does Not Work. If you are not sure how to set up your printer or are having trouble getting it to work properly, try using the Printer Configuration Tool.

Type the system-config-printer command at a shell prompt to launch the Printer Configuration Tool. Problems with Sound Configuration. If, for some reason, you do not hear sound and know that you do have a sound card installed, you can run the Sound Card Configuration Tool system-config-soundcard utility.

A small text box pops up prompting you for your root password. You can also type the system-config-soundcard command at a shell prompt to launch the Sound Card Configuration Tool. If the Sound Card Configuration Tool does not work if the sample does not play and you still do not have audio sounds , it is likely that your sound card is not yet supported in Red Hat Enterprise Linux.

Chapter 7. Updating drivers during installation on Intel and AMD systems. In most cases, Red Hat Enterprise Linux already includes drivers for the devices that make up your system. However, if your system contains hardware that has been released very recently, drivers for this hardware might not yet be included. Sometimes, a driver update that provides support for a new device might be available from Red Hat or your hardware vendor as a ISO image file or a rpm package.

Both these formats supply all the files that make up the driver update together in a single file. Often, you do not need the new hardware during the installation process. For example, if you use a DVD to install to a local hard drive, the installation will succeed even if drivers for your network card are not available. In situations like this, complete the installation and add support for the piece of hardware afterward — refer to Section In other situations, you might want to add drivers for a device during the installation process to support a particular configuration.

For example, you might want to install drivers for a network device or a storage adapter card to give the installer access to the storage devices that your system uses. You can use a driver update image file to add this support during installation in one of three ways: place the image file in a location accessible to the installer: on a local IDE hard drive. This is an advanced procedure that you should consider only if you cannot perform a driver update with any other method.

If Red Hat, your hardware vendor, or a trusted third party told you that you will require a driver update during the installation process, choose a method to supply the update from the methods described in this chapter and test it before beginning the installation. Conversely, do not perform a driver update during installation unless you are certain that your system requires it.

Although installing an unnecessary driver update will not cause harm, the presence of a driver on a system for which it was not intended can complicate support. Limitations of driver updates during installation. Unfortunately, some situations persist in which you cannot use a driver update to provide drivers during installation:.

Devices already in use You cannot use a driver update to replace drivers that the installation program has already loaded. Instead, you must complete the installation with the drivers that the installation program loaded and update to the new drivers after installation, or, if you need the new drivers for the installation process, consider performing an initial RAM disk driver update — refer to Section 7. Because all devices of the same type are initialized together, you cannot update drivers for a device if the installation program has loaded drivers for a similar device.

For example, consider a system that has two different network adapters, one of which has a driver update available. The installation program will initialize both adapters at the same time, and therefore, you will not be able to use this driver update.

Again, complete the installation with the drivers loaded by the installation program and update to the new drivers after installation, or use an initial RAM disk driver update. Preparing for a driver update during installation.

If a driver update is necessary and available for your hardware, Red Hat or a trusted third party such as the hardware vendor will provide it in the form of an image file in ISO format. Some methods of performing a driver update require you to make the image file available to the installation program, others require you to use the image file to make a driver update disk, and one requires you to prepare an initial RAM disk update: Methods that use the image file itself local hard drive IDE only.

Choose a method to provide the driver update, and refer to Section 7. Note that you can use a USB storage device either to provide an image file, or as a driver update disk. Preparing to use a driver update image file. Preparing to use an image file on local storage. You can rename the file if you find it helpful to do so, but you must not change the filename extension, which must remain.

In the following example, the file is named dd. Note that if you use this method, the storage device will contain only a single file. The ISO image file contains all of the files that would normally be on a driver update disk. Refer to Section 7. If you change the file system label of the device to OEMDRV , the installation program will automatically examine it for driver updates and load any that it detects. Preparing to use an image file available through a network.

If you plan to use an image file that is already publicly available through the Internet, no special preparation is necessary. In either case, take note of the URL and verify that you can access the file from another machine on your network before commencing installation. Preparing a driver update disk. If you use a different Linux desktop, or a different operating system altogether, you will need to use another piece of software to create the CD or DVD.

The steps will be generally similar. Look for a button or menu entry labeled burn from image or similar. If your software lacks this feature, or you do not select it, the resulting disk will hold only the image file itself, instead of the contents of the image file.

Use the desktop file manager to locate the driver update ISO image file supplied to you by Red Hat or your hardware vendor. Right-click on this file and choose Write to disc. You will see a window similar to the following:. Click the Write button. After you burn a driver update disk CD or DVD, verify that the disk was created successfully by inserting it into your system and browsing to it using the file manager.

You should see a list of files similar to the following:. Installs, runs and uninstalls. Fixed : Regression, in readme. Installs, did not test more. Fixed : wrong default taskbar icon of setup CORE Installs and runs fine. Major : Slow GUI response in main app, e. Needs Ghostscript for some functions. Minor : installer has redraw issues some pages don't draw initially, but draw after dragging off screen and back CORE Minor : apps window has correct height, but the cards are drawn too large in y CORE window can be expanded manually to workaround Fixed : Wise setup A scrollbar that is initially drawn correctly disabled, gets enabled as soon as you click the triangle CORE Fixed : in setup the dlg that opens on 'browse'-button text-overflow after 'Select the folder where you' CORE Like last time plays ros-logon-audio and helicopter sample video without stuttering on VBox4.

VBox 4. Minor : main app shows no taskbar icon at all or default taskbar icon CORE? Can open PDF files. Installs, runs. Can switch to full-screen and taskbar is properly hidden then. Tested VBox4. Tested VBox 4. I think it just does not provide an uninstaller. Fixed : main app taskbar icon flashes to default exe icon CORE Note: 'the focusing bug when leaving the preferences after theme switch' is no ros bug, happens on 2k3sp2 too. Fixed : Wise setup A scrollbar that is initially drawn correctly disabled, gets enabled as soon as you click the triangle CORE Adobe Reader 6.

Adobe Reader 7. Installs, runs, loads documents but see below and uninstalls. No perceived change since 0. Settings pages are OK. Minor : Sidebar doesn't show tab labels. Tooltips never show any text. Adobe Reader 9. Minor : TOC in settings pages is too narrow. Minor : Start screen shows black background. Fixed : Text in settings pages only shows when hovering with the mouse over it.

Fails to install. Fixed : Online installer shows "Installation will start shortly No download. CORE Major : After downloading, during the installation the installer reports a newer version is already installed which is a lie. Minor : Images in installer now shown. Adobe Reader If installed via workaround, works reasonably well with ROS classic theme. Major : Installer starts but then reports the installation has been cancelled.

Likely CORE See here for a workaround to install version Minor : Reader claims it cannot start in "protected mode". User has to select to start it in unprotected mode. Minor : Settings dialog changes its size depending on what category you click. Minor : Does not open multiple documents in parallel via double-clicking on PDF files Minor : When opening a second document via "load", it appear in a separate window without menu bar.

Aston shell 2. CCleaner 3. CCleaner 4. Design Works Lite 4. Installs, runs with basic slideshow playback. No perceived change to 0. Uninstall dialog does work and claims programm uninstall is complete, but application still works. Minor : Almost all toolbar icons are plain black but work. Minor : While application is running there is a phantom window or button? Minor : Menu entries without shortcut e. I don't even have this key. Minor : After playback screen is not refreshed, only partial UI updates.

Installation fails. Read of address ". Compatibility mode doesn't help. Download Master v. Emesene Messenger 2. Evernote 5. Faststone Image viewer 6. Installs, works and uninstalls well. Major : File names not shown in thumbnail view already in ROS 0. CORE Minor : In full-screen view or full-screen edit windows the taskbar remains in foreground, may overlap some controls. FBReader 0. FEMM 4. Foxit Reader 3. GIMP 2. Google Chrome Google Earth 7 Online Installer. Major : The "GoogleUpdate.

Google Earth 7. Installs, runs with acceptable performance on decent PC. Most tested functions work. Works with DirectX in 0. Major : Search does not work, shows auto-complete but no results. But mouse navigation of earth works. Major : Uninstall via RAPPS doesn't give feedback and does not delete program files, but uninstaller in start menu works. Minor : Initial intaller screen is visually garbled redraw issue? Minor : City labels show black dotted line above text, likely a text or text halo rendering issue.

Grid Wars 5. InfraRecorder 0. Inkscape 0. JPEGView 1. Midori 0. Word, Excel and PowerPoint installs and runs, however there are lots of bugs. Please see CORE for my reported issues. Microsoft Silverlight 5. MuseScore 2. Nero Kwik Media NET Framework 3. PanoramaFactory 4. Installs but see below but doesn't start. Major : Installation starts, but then installer disappears and never tells it is finished. Program is seemingly installed, however.

Major : Startup fails with application error: 'The instruction at "0xx41c6d6 reference memory at "0x". Installs, uninstalls and starts, but is unusable for stitching. Major : With German language, four errors show up during start, e. Major : Application is somewhat usable, but fails at important steps like setting control points and stitching.

Paper Mario 3D Land. PCSX2 1. Installs, runs with limitations and uninstalls deleting 1 of 2 created progam directories. Note: Application requires msvcirt. Major : Open file dialog sees no images and DnD of image into program does't work either. They can be loaded by double click or though "Open" button which appears rather grey. Major : Exiting the application does not end process.

Major : Most pages of the preferences dialog do not show any content show no settings. Minor : Initially started application window shows some redraw issues, e. Minor : UI update isses, f. Minor : Screenshot function does not work does not open screenshot settings dialog. Installs, partly works with major issues, uninstalls fine: Minor : Application requires msvcirt. Major : When using some tools e.

Major : Object properties dialog not shown Major : Open file dialog does not show image preview area in subsequent starts, making it impossible to load images. Might be result of previous crashes, after reboot it works again. Minor : Open file dialog has no title and shows no file type dropdown.

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